Studien zum Thema: "Wichtige Maßnahmen für einen milden Verlauf"


  • Mao, K., Chen, S., Chen, M., Ma, Y., Wang, Y., Huang, B., … Sun, B. (2013). Nitric oxide suppresses NLRP3 inflammasome activation and protects against LPS-induced septic shock. Cell Research, 23(2), 201–212. doi: 10.1038/cr.2013.6
  • Morita, M., Hayashi, T., Ochiai, M., Maeda, M., Yamaguchi, T., Ina, K., & Kuzuya, M. (2014). Oral supplementation with a combination of l-citrulline and l-arginine rapidly increases plasma l-arginine concentration and enhances NO bioavailability. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 454(1), 53–57. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2014.10.029
  • Wijnands, K. A. P., Vink, H., Briedé, J. J., Faassen, E. E. V., Lamers, W. H., Buurman, W. A., & Poeze, M.(2012). Citrulline a More Suitable Substrate than Arginine to Restore NO Production and the Microcirculation during Endotoxemia. PLoS ONE, 7(5). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0037439

Vitamin C verbessert akute entzündungsbedingte Lungenverletzung; Verbesserungen bei COVID-19 durch Vitamin C Infusionen; Vitamin C erhöht NO; Vitamin C und Immunsystem

  • Fisher, B. J., Kraskauskas, D., Martin, E. J., Farkas, D., Wegelin, J. A., Brophy, D., … Natarajan, R.(2012). Mechanisms of attenuation of abdominal sepsis induced acute lung injury by ascorbic acid. American Journal of Physiology-Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, 303(1). doi: 10.1152/ajplung.00300.2011
  • Patel, V. et al. (2020): Dietary antioxidants significantly attenuate hyperoxia induces acute inflammatory lung injury by enhancing macrophage function via reducing the accumulation of airway HBGB1. Int. J. M. Sci 2020, 21(3), 977
  • Cheng RZ. Can early and high intravenous dose of vitamin C prevent and treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?. Med Drug Discov. 2020;5:100028. doi:10.1016/j.medidd.2020.100028
  • Carr, A., & Maggini, S. (2017). Vitamin C and Immune Function. Nutrients, 9(11), 1211. doi: 10.3390/nu9111211
  • Gorkom, G. V., Wolterink, R. K., Elssen, C. V., Wieten, L., Germeraad, W., & Bos, G. (2018). Influence of Vitamin C on Lymphocytes: An Overview. Antioxidants, 7(3), 41. doi: 10.3390/antiox7030041
  • Hemilä, H. (2017). Vitamin C and Infections. Nutrients, 9(4), 339. doi: 10.3390/nu9040339
  • Huang, A., Vita, J. A., Venema, R. C., & Keaney, J. F. (2000). Ascorbic Acid Enhances Endothelial Nitric-oxide Synthase Activity by Increasing Intracellular Tetrahydrobiopterin. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 275(23), 17399–17406. doi: 10.1074/jbc.m002248200

Bor hemmt Inflammasome

  • Baldwin, A. G., Rivers-Auty, J., Daniels, M. J., White, C. S., Schwalbe, C. H., Schilling, T., Brough, D. (2017). Boron-Based Inhibitors of the NLRP3 Inflammasome. Cell Chemical Biology, 24(11).doi: 10.1016/j.chembiol.2017.08.011

Ingwer und Kuruma hemmen Inflammasome

  • Chen, T.-C., Yen, C.-K., Lu, Y.-C., Shi, C.-S., Hsieh, R.-Z., Chang, S.-F., & Chen, C.-N. (2020). The antagonism of 6-shogaol in high-glucose-activated NLRP3 inflammasome and consequent calcification of human artery smooth muscle cells. Cell & Bioscience, 10(1). doi: 10.1186/s13578-019- 0372-1
  • Chen, X., Zhou, Y., & Yu, J. (2019). Exosome-like Nanoparticles from Ginger Rhizomes Inhibited NLRP3n Inflammasome Activation. Molecular Pharmaceutics, 16(6), 2690–2699. Doi: 10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.9b00246
  • Ho, S. C., & Chang, Y. H. (2018). Comparison of Inhibitory Capacities of 6-, 8- and 10- Gingerols/Shogaols on the Canonical NLRP3 Inflammasome-Mediated IL-1β Secretion. Molecules, 23(2), 466. doi: 10.3390/molecules23020466
  • Gong, Z., Zhou, J., Li, H., Gao, Y., Xu, C., Zhao, S., … Wu, J. (2015). Curcumin suppresses NLRP3 inflammasome activation and protects against LPS-induced septic shock. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 59(11), 2132–2142. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201500316
  • Yin, H., Guo, Q., Li, X., Tang, T., Li, C., Wang, H., Peng, J. (2018). Curcumin Suppresses IL-1β Secretion and Prevents Inflammation through Inhibition of the NLRP3 Inflammasome. The Journal of Immunology, 200(8), 2835–2846. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1701495

Vitamin D Mangel in Deutschland/ Vitamin D Mangel führt zu akutem Lungenstress/ Vitamin D hemmt Inflammasome/ Vitamin D Gabe: Evidence bei COVID-19

  • D’Avolio, A., Avataneo, V., Manca, A., Cusato, J., Nicolò, A. D., Lucchini, R., . . . Cantù, M. (2020). 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations Are Lower in Patients with Positive PCR for SARS-CoV-2. Nutrients, 12(5), 1359. doi:10.3390/nu12051359
  • Ilie, P. C., Stefanescu, S., & Smith, L. (2020). The role of vitamin D in the prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 infection and mortality. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research. doi:10.1007/s40520-020-01570-8
  • Alipio, Mark, Vitamin D Supplementation Could Possibly Improve Clinical Outcomes of Patients Infected with Coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) (April 9, 2020).
  • Dancer, R. C. A., Parekh, D., Lax, S., Dsouza, V., Zheng, S., Bassford, C. R., … Thickett, D. R. (2015). Vitamin D deficiency contributes directly to the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Thorax, 70(7), 617–624. doi: 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2014-206680
  • Grant, W. B., Lahore, H., Mcdonnell, S. L., Baggerly, C. A., French, C. B., Aliano, J. L., & Bhattoa, H. P. (2020). Evidence that Vitamin D Supplementation Could Reduce Risk of Influenza and COVID-19 Infections and Deaths. Nutrients, 12(4), 988. doi: 10.3390/nu12040988
  • Gatera, V. A., Abdulah, R., Musfiroh, I., Judistiani, R. T. D., & Setiabudiawan, B. (2018). Updates on the Status of Vitamin D as a Risk Factor for Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Advances in Pharmacological Sciences, 2018, 1–6. doi: 10.1155/2018/8494816
  • Gilbert, C. R., Arum, S. M., & Smith, C. M. (2009). Vitamin D Deficiency and Chronic Lung Disease. Canadian Respiratory Journal, 16(3), 75–80. doi: 10.1155/2009/829130
  • Parekh, D., Thickett, D., & Turner, A. (2013). Vitamin D Deficiency and Acute Lung Injury. Inflammation & Allergy-Drug Targets, 12(4), 253–261. doi: 10.2174/18715281113129990049
  • Pilz, S., März, W., Cashman, K. D., Kiely, M. E., Whiting, S. J., Holick, M. F., … Zittermann, A. (2018). Rationale and Plan for Vitamin D Food Fortification: A Review and Guidance Paper. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 9. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2018.00373
  • Rabenberg, M., & Mensink, G. (2016). Vitamin-D-Status in Deutschland. Journal of Health Monitoring, 1(2). doi: 10.17886/RKI-GBE-2016-036
  • Rao, Z., Chen, X., Wu, J., Xiao, M., Zhang, J., Wang, B., … Chen, Y. (2019). Vitamin D Receptor Inhibits NLRP3 Activation by Impeding Its BRCC3-Mediated Deubiquitination. Frontiers in Immunology, 10. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2019.02783
  • Schilling, S. (2012). Epidemic Vitamin D Deficiency Among Patients in an Elderly Care Rehabilitation Facility. Deutsches Aerzteblatt Online. doi: 10.3238/arztebl.2012.0033

Rosmarin hemmt Inflammasome

  • Oliveira, J. R. D., Camargo, S. E. A., & Oliveira, L. D. D. (2019). Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) as therapeutic and prophylactic agent. Journal of Biomedical Science, 26(1). doi: 10.1186/s12929-019-0499-8
  • Shi, W., Xu, G., Zhan, X., Gao, Y., Wang, Z., Fu, S., … Bai, Z. (2020). Carnosol inhibits inflammasome activation by directly targeting HSP90 to treat inflammasome-mediated diseases. Cell Death & Disease, 11(4). doi: 10.1038/s41419-020-2460-x
  • Yao, Y., Mao, J., Xu, S., Zhao, L., Long, L., Chen, L., … Lu, S. (2018). Rosmarinic acid inhibits nicotine-induced C-reactive protein generation by inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome activation in smooth muscle cells. Journal of Cellular Physiology, 234(2), 1758–1767. Doi: 10.1002/jcp.27046

Basische Ernährung hemmt Inflammasome

  • Rajamäki, K., Nordström, T., Nurmi, K., Åkerman, K. E. O., Kovanen, P. T., Öörni, K., & Eklund, K. K.(2013). Extracellular Acidosis Is a Novel Danger Signal Alerting Innate Immunity via the NLRP3 Inflammasome. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 288(19), 13410–13419. doi: 10.1074/jbc.m112.426254

Melatonin hemmt Inflammasome und Lungenschäden

  • Acuña-Castroviejo, D., Carretero, M., Doerrier, C. et al. Melatonin protects lung mitochondria from aging. AGE 34, 681–692 (2012). doi: /10.1007/s11357-011-9267-8
  • Huang, S.-H., Liao, C.-L., Chen, S.-J., Shi, L.-G., Lin, L., Chen, Y.-W., … Lin, G.-J. (2019). Melatonin possesses an anti-influenza potential through its immune modulatory effect. Journal of Functional Foods, 58, 189–198. doi: 10.1016/j.jff.2019.04.062
  • Rodríguez, M. I., Escames, G., López, L. C., López, A., García, J. A., Ortiz, F., & Acuña-Castroviejo, D. (2007). Chronic melatonin treatment reduces the age-dependent inflammatory process in senescence-accelerated mice. Journal of Pineal Research, 42(3), 272–279. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-079x.2006.00416.x
  • Volt, H., García, J. A., Doerrier, C., Díaz-Casado, M. E., Guerra-Librero, A., López, L. C., Acuña- Castroviejo, D. (2016). Same molecule but different expression: aging and sepsis trigger NLRP3 inflammasome activation, a target of melatonin. Journal of Pineal Research, 60(2), 193–205. doi: 10.1111/jpi.12303
  • Wu, G.-C., Peng, C.-K., Liao, W.-I., Pao, H.-P., Huang, K.-L., & Chu, S.-J. (2020). Melatonin receptor agonist protects against acute lung injury induced by ventilator through up-regulation of IL-10 production. Respiratory Research, 21(1). Doi: 10.1186/s12931-020-1325-2
  • Zhang, J., Lu, X., Liu, M., Fan, H., Zheng, H., Zhang, S., … Li, X. (2019). Melatonin inhibits inflammasome-associated activation of endothelium and macrophages attenuating pulmonary arterial hypertension. Cardiovascular Research. doi: 10.1093/cvr/cvz312
  • Zhang, Y., Li, X., Grailer, J. J., Wang, N., Wang, M., Yao, J., … Li, X. (2016). Melatonin alleviates acute lung injury through inhibiting the NLRP3 inflammasome. Journal of Pineal Research, 60(4), 405–414. doi: 10.1111/jpi.12322

Allgemeine Immunreaktionen: Cytokin Storm, Inflammasome

  • Delia, R. V., Harrison, K., Oyston, P. C., Lukaszewski, R. A., & Clark, G. C. (2013). Targeting the “Cytokine Storm” for Therapeutic Benefit. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, 20(3), 319–327. doi: 10.1128/cvi.00636-12
  • Diot, A., Morten, K., & Poulton, J. (2016). Mitophagy plays a central role in mitochondrial ageing. Mammalian Genome, 27(7-8), 381–395. doi: 10.1007/s00335-016-9651-x
  • Gram, A. M., Frenkel, J., & Ressing, M. E. (2012). Inflammasomes and viruses: cellular defence versus viral offence. Journal of General Virology, 93(10), 2063–2075. doi: 10.1099/vir.0.042978-0
  • Nieto-Torres, J. L., Verdiá-Báguena, C., Jimenez-Guardeño, J. M., Regla-Nava, J. A., Castaño- Rodriguez, C., Fernandez-Delgado, R., … Enjuanes, L. (2015). Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus E protein transports calcium ions and activates the NLRP3 inflammasome. Virology, 485, 330–339. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2015.08.010
  • Song, N., Liu, Z.-S., Xue, W., Bai, Z.-F., Wang, Q.-Y., Dai, J., … Li, T. (2017). NLRP3 Phosphorylation Is an Essential Priming Event for Inflammasome Activation. Molecular Cell, 68(1). doi: 10.1016/j.molcel.2017.08.017
  • Tisoncik, J. R., Korth, M. J., Simmons, C. P., Farrar, J., Martin, T. R., & Katze, M. G. (2012). Into the Eye of the Cytokine Storm. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, 76(1), 16–32. doi: 10.1128/mmbr.05015-11
  • Tőzsér, J., & Benkő, S. (2016). Natural Compounds as Regulators of NLRP3 Inflammasome-Mediated IL-1βProduction. Mediators of Inflammation, 2016, 1–16. doi: 10.1155/2016/5460302
  • Wong, C. K., Lam, C. W. K., Wu, A. K. L., Ip, W. K., Lee, N. L. S., Chan, I. H. S., … Sung, J. J. Y. (2004). Plasma inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in severe acute respiratory syndrome. Clinical & Experimental Immunology, 136(1), 95–103. doi: 10.1111/j.1365- 2249.2004.02415.x
  • Xiao, Y., Xu, W., & Su, W. (2018). NLRP3 inflammasome: A likely target for the treatment of allergic diseases. Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 48(9), 1080–1091. doi: 10.1111/cea.13190
  • Yang, Z., Liang, C., Wang, T., Zou, Q., Zhou, M., Cheng, Y., … Liu, H. (2020). NLRP3 inflammasome activation promotes the development of allergic rhinitis via epithelium pyroptosis. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 522(1), 61–67. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2019.11.031

25% Sterberate bei COVID-19 Erkrankungen mit Beatmungsmaschinen

  • Richardson, S., Hirsch, J. S., Narasimhan, M., Crawford, J. M., Mcginn, T., Davidson, K. W., … Zanos, T. P. (2020). Presenting Characteristics, Comorbidities, and Outcomes Among 5700 Patients Hospitalized With COVID-19 in the New York City Area. Jama. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.6775

COV-2 schwächt Darmschleimhaut

  • Lamers, M. M., Beumer, J., Vaart, J. V. D., Knoops, K., Puschhof, J., Breugem, T. I., Clevers, H. (2020). SARS-CoV-2 productively infects human gut enterocytes. Science. doi: 10.1126/science.abc1669